Updating the concept of prebiotics 2016 online dating site in texas
The most commonly used in vitro models to study anaerobic fermentation of carbohydrates by mixed bacterial populations, particularly fecal bacteria, are batch- and continuous-culture fermentation systems.
Much of the early (and some of the current) literature describes studies performed on pure cultures.
In light of these criteria and the above considerations, this article aims at revisiting the concept of prebiotics 11 y from its first introduction.
To do so, it reviews ) the human data so far available on the prebiotic effect of inulin with the aim of discussing how these data should be analyzed and presented.
Indeed, simply reporting fermentation in pure cultures of single microbial strains or an increase in a limited number of bacterial genera in complex mixtures of bacteria (e.g., fecal slurries) either in vitro or in vivo cannot be accepted as demonstrating a prebiotic effectsince it does not take bacterial interactions into account.
Demonstrating a selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of these intestinal bacteria that contribute to health and well-being requires anaerobic sampling of feces followed by reliable and quantitative microbiological analysis of a wide variety of bacterial genera, e.g., total aerobes/anaerobes, bacteroides, bifidobacteria, clostridia, enterobacteria, eubacteria, and lactobacilli.
For each candidate prebiotic, these methodologies should demonstrate resistance to gastric acidity, hydrolysis by mammalian enzymes and gastrointestinal absorption, fermentation by intestinal microflora, and selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of intestinal bacteria.